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Lobes of the Brain

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Lobes of the Brain

 

Frontal Lobe   Parietal Lobe   Temporal Lobe   Occipital Lobe   Cerebellum   Brain Stem   Limbic System   Neurotransmitters


The human brain can be divided into six (6) distinct areas; each with its' own primary functions. Generally, most limit it to four (4) or five (5), neglecting the 'brain stem' & 'cerebellum', though these are vital to those functions that are 'essential to basic life', not merely higher cognitive functioning.

Damage to any of these areas can have the resultant effect of disturbances to their primary functions. This damage & consequential 'malfunction' can take the form of 'physical' changes'; 'structural changes'; 'atrophy'; 'neurotransmitter deficiencies', 'anomolies', 'imbalances' and so on.

Below is a brief outline as to these specific 'lobes' & the associated areas of influence & 'responsibility'.

 

Frontal Lobe

  • Oten referred to as the 'area of executive functioning'
  • Attention
  • Creativity
  • Impulse control or 'Self Control'
  • Behaviour & emotions
  • Planning & organisational ability
  • Parts of speech
  • Reasoning & judgment
  • Empathy

Parietal Lobe 

  • There are two (2) lobes (left & right)
  • Primarily responsible for 'sensations' or the 'senses' & described as the 'Primary Sensory Cortex'
  • Touch, pressure, taste, temperature
  • Control of 'fine sensations' & the capacity for.....
  • Judgment of weight, size, texture, shape etc.
  • Also responsible for language functions

 

Temporal Lobe

  • As with the 'Parietal Lobe', there are two (2) Temporal Lobes (left & right)
  • Involved in 'visual memory' (right side)
  • Sense & capacity for differentiation in smells
  • Hearing
  • Involved in 'short term memory'
  • Verbal memory &/or comprehension of vocabulary, words, phrases, names etc. (left side)

 

Occipital Lobe

  • Involved in the processing of visual information receiving information & signals (via electrical neurotransmission) via the eyes & optic nerve
  • Also integral in the visual recognition of shapes, colours & objects

 

Cerebellum

  • Responsible for the concept & co-ordination of balance
  • Movement - both fine motor & gross motor
  • Muscle movement & posture
  • Also believed to be linked to thinking & emotions

 

Brain Stem

  • The lower part of the brain, where it connects to the 'spinal cord'
  • Its' functions are vital for basic human survival
  • In the earliest stages of embryonic & foetal development, this part of the brain is that which develops initially
  • Controls or regulates breathing or respirations
  • Heart rate regulation
  • Blood pressure
  • Digestion
  • Level of alertness or wakefulness
  • The 'Brainstem' is the conduit or pathway for all perpheral nerves & spinal cord/nerves, both ascending & descending (transmitting & receiving), and connecting to the higher parts of the brain itself itself; the cerbral cortex.

 

 

 

The Brain is made up of 78% water, 10% fat & 8% protein. It contains billions of neurons held together by cells called 'Glial Cells'. Given that neurons consitute approximately 10% of brain cells and Glial Cells the remainder, this equates to about 1,000 billion in our brains.

The 'Glial Cells' not only hold & support the growing brain and its neurons, but also provide the necessary nutrients, chemicals (food) etc. required by the neuronal cells. There is evidence to suggest that the greater number of Glial Cells in a particular area, the greater the ability for the functions of that area to be maximised. Albert Einstein's brain, when examined by scientists, showed a huge number of Glial Cells in a specific region of the brain; significantly more than seen in others.

Other essential areas of regions of the brain are as follows:

 

  • Thalamus - involved with sensory & motor activity
  • Hypothalamus - controls body temperature, emotions, thirst, appetite, hunger, sleep & digestion
  • Pituitary Gland - controls hormones and converts food into energy
  • Pineal Gland - controls growth & maturation
  • Amyglada (2) - involved in controlling or regulating emotions
  • Hippocampus - forms & stores memories & involved in learning
  • Mid-Brain - controls breathing, swallowing & other reflexes

 

The Hypothalamus, Amyglada & Hippocampus comprise a structure known as the 'Limbic System', being linked by massess of densely packed neurons & cerebral fibres.

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